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January, 2013:


Mr Dennis Miller Solena Fuels

Dear Dennis,

Thanks for your reply yesterday.

The HKG proposed incinerator consultants are AECOM.

Herewith attached  please see quotes from AECOM regarding gasification.

It seems AECOM will write anything the client directs them to write rather than ‘consulting’ or advising the client.

One would presume that part of the AECOM’s study submission would be data on the moisture content of local MSW and construction waste.

It is a known study fact that the major emissions (over 60% per year) of dioxins from incinerators are when on startup or shutdown for maintenance or breakdown or flue flyash cleanout.

This happens due to a lower burn temperature and the presence of plastics / chlorines in the MSW mix.

The burn temperature is also affected by the presence of MSW that is too wet.  I would doubt that operator Chan Fat working on the nightshift at the 2022 incinerator would bother to adjust burn temperatures.

‘Incinerators have to be shut down on occasion, both for routine maintenance and because of operating problems. It has been observed that during shutdown and startup, the levels of dioxins and other pollutants can be much higher than under optimal operation. Tejima et al [2007] tested the dioxin stack emissions of an MSW incinerator under conditions of startup, steady state and shutdown. They found concentrations of WHO-TEQ dioxin of 36 – 709 mg.m-3 during startup, 2.3 mg.m-3 during steady state operation, and 2.5 – 49 mg.m-3 during shutdown. They estimated that 41% of the total annual emissions could be attributed to the startup period, assuming three startups per year. L.-C. Wang et al [2007] found that a single startup could contribute about 60% of the PCDD/F emissions for one whole year of normal operations; hence, assuming three startups per year, 64% of total annual emissions could come from startup.

As regards your biodiesel comments please see here:

Hong Kong uses Euro V diesel with an extremely low sulphur content. The major problem is NOx emissions in overdeveloped urban canyons the winds cannot reach to disperse.

The previous maladministration mandated fitting soot traps for the older buses but seemed unaware that such units also require the fitting of SCR units since the soot traps increase NOx emissions.

It took a University report to educate them to this fact.

One of our major thoroughfares is Nathan Road and the EPD has estimated that 44% of pollution on that road is caused by buses. Too many routes end up on the same thoroughfares in Mongkok, Causeway Bay and Central. The Government could have mandated certain roads/areas as ‘Clean Air Zones’ where only Euro V, V1, hybrid or electric shuttle buses are permitted entry. All routes should terminate outside the problem areas with hybrid shuttles plying those routes. We are still waiting for the imposition of Clean Air Zones. Buses drive around 95% empty  for 80% of the day and are basically moving advertising billboards, albeit a highly convenient service.

Anyway I hope Government take heed of new technology like yours and do not bury their blinkered heads in the ground.



Plasma Gasification in Renewable Power Generation Michael Zebell Aecom


Air Products second gasplasma plant



Joint venture company plans £75 million gasification plant in Teesside

by Paul Sanderson

A £75 million gasification plant could be built in Teesside following a joint venture between Teesside company Scott Brothers and Devon firm O2N.

The facility would generate 14MW of energy from 160,000 tonnes of household waste with the firms saying it would be the largest of its type in the UK.

Finance discussions are already well advanced, and subject to planning permission it could be up and running by 2015.

Air Products recently announced that it plans to construct a similar facility in the region.

Scott Brothers Group managing director Frank Cooke said: “Often with gasification technology in the UK projects turn out to be long-term and difficult to get off the ground.

This is an American design. There are more than 20 similar ones in operation around the world, particularly in Scandinavia and Germany. It’s a tried and tested technology.

“There are some in the UK, but none of this size at the moment. We are in well advanced discussions on finance. We are also talking to both national and local waste suppliers.

“The majority of the electricity created could be used by local chemical companies.”

AECOM will design, construct, procure and operate the facility that will be located on an industrial site formerly belonging to ICI.

Download PDF : Brian-Thompson-WESTINGHOUSE-PLASMA A


Interview with EnergyPark Peterborough

FINAL Waste to Gas Pilot Project press release 22 Feb 2012 A

Prediction of utilities’ natural gas needs may have been too high

Published on South China Morning Post (

Home > Prediction of utilities’ natural gas needs may have been too high

Prediction of utilities’ natural gas needs may have been too high

Submitted by admin on Jan 9th 2013, 12:00am

News›Hong Kong


Cheung Chi-fai

Environment officials tried yesterday to ease fears of drastic electricity price increases in the next few years, saying the city might not need to double the amount of natural gas used by 2015 as was previously predicted.

Vivian Lau Lee-kwan, deputy permanent secretary for the environment, said better-than-expected effectiveness of sulphur scrubbers installed at the power companies’ coal-fired generation units meant they might not need to burn more gas to meet emission caps in three years.

Lau was speaking at a meeting of the legislature’s Economic Development Panel to discuss this year’s power prices.

Her comment was made in response to lawmakers’ fears that the charges of CLP Power would surge drastically as more and higher-priced gas was used.

The Environment Bureau earlier projected that gas use would need to double by 2015 so that the power firms could meet the emission targets for that year. But the latest review showed that this could be postponed, though it was not immediately known to which year. Currently, natural gas accounts for about 20 per cent of CLP’s fuel mix. The rest is 50 per cent coal and 30 per cent nuclear.

“The two power firms might need to go back to review their data. But it seems now that we don’t need to double,” Lau said.

The challenge would be greater for CLP, which is switching to new gas piped from Central Asia via the mainland this year as its much cheaper supplies from Hainan Island run out.

It is estimated that power charges could rise by 20 cents per kilowatt hour above the 2012 level if all the gas provided for in a just-approved contract is used.

In the 20-year contract between CLP and PetroChina, Hong Kong can import up to 6 billion cubic metres of gas a year. The per-unit price of gas is between US$18 and US$20.

CLP Power managing director Richard Lancaster said it was still difficult to gauge how long the cheaper gas from Hainan would last. “It could be some years before it is exhausted,” he said.

The price of gas from the shrinking Hainan reserve is just a third of that from Central Asia. The firm said the reserve would still supply about 30 per cent of the gas it needed this year.

Lancaster said future power prices would be subjected to various factors including electricity sales and levels of investments.

CLP Power and Hongkong Electric increased charges by 5.9 per cent and 2.9 per cent respectively this year. Most of the rise was attributed to increasing fuel costs.


Electricity Generation

Natural Gas

Public Utilities

CLP Power



Source URL (retrieved on Jan 9th 2013, 6:27am):

UK Transforming urban waste into sustainable material and energy usage

Transforming urban waste into sustainable material and energy usage: The case of Greater Manchester. Original Research Article
Journal of Cleaner Production, Available online 13 December 2012, Pages
Elvira Uyarra, Sally Gee

“… the paper describes how Greater Manchester (UK) underwent a transformation from a relatively simple landfill model to a highly complex, multi-technology waste solution based on intensive recycling and composting, and sustainable energy usage. The case is relevant because the UK has long been seen as a laggard when it comes to sustainable waste practices. The 1999 EU landfill directive exerted great pressure to change waste practices in the UK. Against the national trend of incineration with energy recovery, Greater Manchester opted instead for a solution that was deemed more innovative and sustainable, but which involved overcoming significant technological, political and financial challenges. The paper investigates the process that led to this purposive transformation, characterized by a mix of political vision, stakeholder engagement, economies of scale, and the ability of waste disposal managers to gather expertise, resources, political influence and commitment at multiple levels of governance.”

With city deal signed, Plasco eyes global markets in 2013,-Plasco-eyes-global-markets-in-2013/1

With city deal signed, Plasco eyes global markets in 2013

The head of Plasco Energy Group may have accomplished a lot in 2012, but don’t expect him to sit around celebrating for too long.

Topics :(file photo)

Ottawa , China , United States

He’s hoping his landmark agreement with the City of Ottawa to take residents’ garbage and turn it into energy will give him traction in reaching similar deals elsewhere.

“It’s important both as a major commercial operation for us and in the short run it probably has even more importance in helping us close and move forward with other projects that are very close to closing in other parts of the world,” said Rod Bryden, the company’s president and CEO, in an interview.

Plasco wrapped up a year’s worth of negotiations last weekend when they signed a 20-year contract with the city. The company will take the 109,500 tonnes of waste the city provides to it each year for about $9.1 million.

The two sides had been working on the deal since last December when council directed staff to try to reach a deal with the company.

Mr. Bryden said they are past that stage in negotiations with several other potential clients – which he said are mostly municipalities, but also include waste management companies – in places such as China, the United States, the United Kingdom and the Caribbean.

They still haven’t gotten to the point where they are ready to sign final contracts, but he said the Ottawa deal will be a valuable reference account that will help the company reach similar agreements elsewhere in the world.

Most of these are municipalities interested in using the technology, which Mr. Bryden said results in no emissions, to reduce their environmental footprint.

The City of Ottawa hopes Plasco will help reduce the amount of garbage it sends to landfills. Plasco, meanwhile, gets a chance to show potential new clients its “plasma gasification” technology can work on a large scale.

The company has until now been running only one unit of the technology in a demonstration plant. A new facility, constructed close to the corner of Moodie Drive and Trail Road, will have three such units.

City councillors expressed doubts about the viability of the technology, as the company had yet to sell the technology to a commercial buyer before selling it to the city. Confidence eroded further as the city repeatedly failed to live up to the deadlines they promised for signing the contract.

The city insists the deal has been structured so taxpayers will only have to pay for the service if it works. Mr. Bryden says Plasco is happy to take the risk on the project since it means they can silence all the “chatter” from people who doubt the technology can process garbage on a large scale.

“We need to take any risk that is perceived and implement the project and absorb that risk so that we can build our project now and not after it’s run for a year,” said Mr. Bryden. “Obviously the project can’t run for a year until it’s built and we don’t expect anyone to take any risk on that.”

The facility will be able to process 130,000 tonnes of waste every year, he said, which means they will be able to take an extra 21,500 tonnes. Mr. Bryden said they hope to sell the extra capacity to waste management companies if the city doesn’t pick up the option to use it.

Plasco expects construction to start later in 2013 with commercial operation getting going in the first part of 2015.

Mr. Bryden pushed for city council to approve the deal as quickly as possible last December so he could begin to get private financing for the project.

He said he has since been working with a “large, mainstream Canadian bank” which has laid out the terms under which it will provide construction financing.

Biomass Gasification Technology Assessment

Download PDF : 57085

Transformation of Waste into Syngas using Plasma Gasification for the Production of Energy or Biofuels

Download PDF : Brian-Thompson-WESTINGHOUSE-PLASMA

Solena – BA One Destination – British Airways


A CG impression of the Solena biojet fuel plant.

In 2009 British Airways formed a partnership with Solena, a renewable energy technology company based in the US. Together we are developing a project to create sustainable biojet fuel by processing municipal waste using plasma gasification technology. We aim to build a commercial scale biojet fuel plant in the South East of England; the first of its kind in Europe. It will convert up to 500,000 tonnes of waste into 16m gallons of aviation biofuel each year, meeting all of British Airways’ fuel needs at London City Airport. The fuel itself will be cleaner burning than kerosene providing air quality benefits as the fuel produces much lower levels of particulate matterA digger piles up waste material inside a warehouse.

By using biomass waste to produce the biojet fuel, the project will help to reduce the amount of waste that is sent to landfills. In addition, its zero waste philosophy means that all materials from the plant are recycled – producing renewable naphtha that can be used to make renewable plastics or blended into other fuels, and it also produces a solid aggregate-type material. The plant will also produce more than 20MW net of green renewable power that can be fed into the grid and any excess steam can be used for local heating applications.

The BA and Solena partnership project represents a significant inward investment of new green technology into the UK. Helping to divert waste from landfill sites, providing energy to the local area and producing greener aviation fuel, the project will help to reinforce the UK’s position as an innovator in technological advancement whilst providing leadership in the area of sustainable green energy and biojet fuel solutions.


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